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Education in the United Kingdom  

2012-10-27 20:41:56|  分类: ★KERISA |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Education in the United Kingdom: Each of the countries of the United Kingdom have separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England

The education system is divided into
nursery (ages 3–4),
primary education (ages 4–11),
secondary education (ages 11–18)
tertiary education (ages 18+)
* Tertiary education is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16, either at school or otherwise, with a child beginning primary education during the school year he or she turns 5.

The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008

State-provided schooling and sixth form education is paid for by taxes

Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state via tuition fees, which have increased.


News article: Rise in tuition fees

Universities in England will be able to charge tuition fees of up to 9,000 per year from 2012, as the government transfers much of the cost of courses from the state to students.

Fees will rise to 6,000, up from the current 3,290 per year, with an upper tier of 9,000.

Labour's Gareth Thomas said the fee hike represented a "tragedy for a whole generation of young people" (Why do you think he said this?)

Universities wanting to charge more than 6,000 have to undertake measures, such as offering bursaries, summer schools and outreach programmes, to encourage students from poorer backgrounds to apply.

The proposals are thought of as "a life-saving cash transfusion" which would be the "only way for the UK to remain a serious global player in higher education".

But many have warned that the withdrawal of public funding will mean universities will be forced to charge students the maximum 9,000 - and that the proposals are "very unlikely" to provide a "long-term and sustainable basis" for university funding.

It's been said that "students will be forced to choose the cheapest courses, not the one that suits them best".

The changes in tuition fees will apply to universities in England. Scottish students studying in Scotland do not have to pay any fees. In Northern Ireland and Wales, fees are currently charged up to a maximum of 3,290.

How will students pay the fees?

The government will lend students the money for fees, which will be paid back when they graduate and begin working. The fees will not have to be paid up-front.

Each month graduates will pay back 9% of their income.

The subsidised interest rate at which the repayments are made - currently 1.5% - will be raised to 3% plus inflation for incomes above 41,000.

If the debt is not cleared 30 years after graduation, it will be cancelled.


What is the long-term cost?

Students taking three-year courses charged at 9,000, plus full maintenance loans, will leave university with about 43,000 of debt.


How are universities funded?

In the UK as a whole, income from fees - including fees paid directly by students such as postgraduates and overseas students - makes up about 29% of universities' total funding, which was 25.4bn in 2008/09.

Another 35% comes from government funding bodies, while the rest comes from other sources such as research grants, endowments and investments.

In England, the balance of funding is going to change - with much of the cost of university courses switching from the taxpayer to the student.


What does the proposal mean for the rest of the UK?

Scotland does not charge Scottish students fees. In 2011-12, students from elsewhere in the UK have to pay 1,820 per year to study at Scottish universities. But from 2012, universities will be able to charge up to 9,000 for students from elsewhere in the UK.

The Welsh Assembly has announced that fees will rise to up to 9,000, as in England, but the government will pay fee costs above 3,465 a year for Welsh students studying at any UK university.

Ministers in Northern Ireland have said that tuition fee levels will rise only in line with inflation for home students for the next four years, and will be capped at 3,465 in 2012. Fees for other UK students will not be capped "but are not expected to exceed 9,000".

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